¿Cómo influye la rehabilitación cardíaca después de la cirugía coronaria y la angioplastia?

Eduardo Rivas Estany, Nelson A Campos Vera

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Resumen

Los programas de rehabilitación cardíaca (RC) y prevención secundaria se consideran dentro de las principales indicaciones de la cardiopatía isquémica, incluyendo los diversos métodos de revascularización del miocardio, ya sea mediante cirugía coronaria o angioplastia.

La RC es la intervención con la mejor evidencia científica en contribuir a la disminución de la morbilidad y mortalidad en cardiopatía isquémica, en particular después del infarto del miocardio,  pero también en intervenciones de las arterias coronarias. Por tanto es recomendada con el más alto nivel de evidencia científica (Clase I) por las más importantes organizaciones cardiológicas internacionales.

Para pacientes quirúrgicos la rehabilitación se inicia inmediatamente después de la cirugía con el objetivo de facilitar el incremento de su estado funcional y psicológico.

Los pacientes después de la angioplastia coronaria se consideran candidatos para efectuar un programa de ejercicios físicos, pues éste además de incrementar su capacidad funcional, reduce los factores de riesgo coronario y enlentece la progresión o disminuye la severidad de la aterosclerosis subyacente.

Está confirmado que la RC integral disminuye la mortalidad cardiovascular, los ingresos hospitalarios e incrementa la calidad de vida. Tales beneficios son válidos para las intervenciones de revascularización del miocardio, ya sea por métodos quirúrgicos o intervencionistas.

Palabras clave

Rehabilitación cardíaca, Cirugía coronaria, Angioplastia coronaria, Ejercicio, Entrenamiento físico, Prevención secundaria, Cambio estilo de vida.

Referencias

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