Enfermedad cardíaca isquémica en la mujer. Factores de riesgo tradicionales y específicos

Amalia Teresa Peix González

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Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) constituyen actualmente la primera causa de muerte a nivel mundial. Pero si bien en la última década ha disminuido su prevalencia en países de elevados ingresos, en los países de bajos y medianos ingresos es lo contrario. En nuestro país, al comparar ambos sexos, si bien los hombres mueren más de enfermedades oncológicas, en el caso de las mujeres las ECV constituyen la primera causa. Las diferencias en los factores de riesgo tradicionales y emergentes, en la fisiopatología de la enfermedad cardíaca isquémica (ECI), las atipicidades del cuadro clínico y, principalmente, la insuficiente concientización del problema por parte tanto de los médicos de asistencia como de las propias mujeres, hacen que la ECI en la mujer sea muchas veces subdiagnosticada y no reciba un adecuado tratamiento. Se presentan las semejanzas y diferencias entre mujeres y hombres en relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales y se hace hincapié en los factores de riesgo emergentes, específicos de la mujer, de forma de contribuir a una detección más precoz de la enfermedad y a un adecuado tratamiento que permita mejorar el pronóstico.

Palabras clave

mujer; enfermedad cardíaca isquémica; factores de riesgo

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