Hierro y falla cardíaca, dos comorbilidades para prestar atención

Yulis Fernanda Lobo Salas

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Resumen

La falla cardíaca es un síndrome complejo causado por alteraciones estructurales y/o del funcionamiento cardíaco que llevan a manifestaciones sintomáticas como disnea y cansancio; afecta a aproximadamente 26 millones de personas en el mundo. El hierro es un mineral esencial para el correcto funcionamiento de los músculos que obtienen su energía por medio de procesos como la fosforilación oxidativa y el ciclo de Krebs los cuales se llevan a cabo en la mitocondria. El miocardio cuenta con un gran número de estas organelas, por tal motivo, alteraciones en el balance de este mineral pueden generar fallos sistemáticos que lleven a disfunción muscular. Aproximadamente la mitad de los pacientes con falla cardíaca desarrolla déficit de hierro, una comorbilidad que puede aparecer con o sin anemia y que por sí sola empeora los signos y síntomas de la enfermedad. Para su diagnóstico se tiene en cuenta los niveles séricos de ferritina y la saturación de transferrina. Las últimas guías de manejo indican que el tratamiento debe ser hierro en su forma intravenosa puesto que se ha demostrado que tiene grandes beneficios en la reversibilidad de la remodelación cardíaca, en la clasificación funcional de esta y en la percepción de calidad de vida de los pacientes. Esta revisión se hizo con el fin de recolectar la información disponible en la literatura y determinar qué alternativas de tratamiento derivan en una mejor calidad de vida.

Palabras clave

deficiencia de hierro, anemia, insuficiencia cardíaca, homeostasis, hierro

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