Medición intraoperatoria de flujo, una herramienta eficaz en la Cirugía de Revascularización Miocárdica

John Karol Ramirez, Manuel Nafeh Abi Rezk, Yasser Colao Jimenez

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Resumen

Según la OMS, la enfermedad coronaria es la primera causa de muerte a nivel mundial, asociando entre otros factores a una mayor expectativa de vida y a la creciente prevalencia de comorbilidades como la diabetes mellitus y la HTA. La preconización del tratamiento quirúrgico en las diferentes guías de actuación como abordaje de elección para las lesiones complejas del árbol coronario en cuadros no agudos, y el hecho que entre un 7–15% de los injertos se ocluyen antes del alta hospitalaria y hasta un 30% al año en algunas series, en gran medida por fallos en la calidad técnica de los injertos, ha motivado el desarrollo de diferentes métodos para la evaluación intraoperatoria de los hemoductos. El objetivo de esta investigación es, por medio de una revisión de la literatura actual, dilucidar cuál es el más idóneo, inocuo, costo efectivo y reproducible de los disponibles, pudiéndose concluir que a pesar de ser la angiografía intraoperatoria convencional el estándar para la valoración, no se adapta a las necesidades descritas, imposibilitando la generalización de su uso. La Flujometría por Tiempo de Transito es un método sencillo de realizar, inofensivo para el paciente y el operador, y económico que permite evaluar de manera objetiva la calidad de los injertos con una especificidad de hasta el 98.4%, una sensibilidad que oscila entre el 25%-96%, y un valor predictivo positivo que llega al 100% al usarlo en conjunto con otros métodos como el Ultrasonido Transepicárdico, pudiéndose considerar, como la herramienta intraoperatoria más adecuada.

Palabras clave

Medición de Flujo, Flujometría por tiempo de tránsito, Ultrasonido transepicárdico

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